Specialized Translation KSATranslation Studies

The Different Types of Translation

Translation is the process of converting ideas and meanings from the original language of the text into the language of the target audience, therefore a translator must reconstruct the text in a way that preserves both linguistic and semantic accuracy, using words that fit the context to convey the intended message.

Types of Translation

Translation varies based on the field of the text being translated, below are the most common types of translation:

Administrative Translation

Administrative Translation الترجمة الادارية

This involves translating all texts and documents related to business and administration, including routine tasks within companies and institutions.
It includes contracts, payment vouchers, purchase orders, memos, and other administrative documents.

Business Translation

Business Translation- ترجمة تجارية

 It encompasses a wide range of fields and intersects with various other types of translation, includes a portion of legal translation, especially concerning contract translation.
Additionally it covers administrative translation for administrative documents, and involves translating newspaper articles that discuss business developments.

Economic Translation

Economic Translation- ترجمة اقتصادية

With the increasing economic interactions among global companies from various nationalities, economic translation has become more crucial than ever.
It involves translating all documents related to investment activities for the company, including import and export documents, sales invoices, business registration, tax records, and other essential documents.
An economic translator must pay close attention to accurately translate these documents to avoid any financial losses or rights infringement.

Financial Translation

ترجمة مالية - Financial Translation

This type deals with translating all financial transactions for companies, it’s particularly crucial for international companies.
Financial translators need expertise in the financial field and also legal knowledge, they handle legal documents related to finances, including insurance, financial and tax reports, audits, contracts, local regulations, income statements, and growth plans.

General Translation

General Translation- ترجمة عامة

This type of translation is non-specialized and can be understood by anyone, it doesn’t contain technical or specialized terminology, its meanings can be easily researched, an example would be translating website content, product descriptions, or general reports.

Journalistic Translation

Journalistic Translation- ترجمة صحفية - انترفيو

It’s a specialized form of marketing translation related to newspaper publications, used to cover specific events associated with a particular brand.
Journalistic translators work to promote a company’s activities, helping companies showcase their work and advertise it, as a result they attract projects and job opportunities.

Literary Translation

This type involves translating literary works such as novels, stories, poems, and plays, it’s considered one of the most challenging forms of translation, as the translator must convey the emotions and nuances behind the expressions and context.
It also includes the artistic details of the literary work, allowing readers to enjoy and understand it more deeply.

Legal Translation

Legal Translation ترجمة قانونية - فيزا - سفر - هجرة

 It’s also highly sensitive, any mistake in legal translation can lead to legal problems that may disrupt business operations, it involves contracts, patents, legal documents, as well as copyright, authorship rights, certificates, and legal statements.
Therefore a legal translator must be certified in their country, have a legal background, be proficient in communication and writing skills, and be familiar with the art of word selection, as well as knowledgeable about the laws of the countries they are translating from and to.

Media Translation

Involves translating media content, such as news and recent updates, for companies, it plays a crucial role in communicating with the audience and increasing brand awareness.
This contributes to boosting sales and profits, therefore a media translator must be creative and skilled in marketing, capable of presenting ideas in an attractive and promotional manner in the target language.

Medical Translation

Medical Translation- ترجمة طبية

 It’s one of the most complex and sensitive types of translation, any error in medical translation can have serious consequences for people’s health.
It includes translating medical publications, reports, and brochures, as well as all aspects related to the medical field, this encompasses medical devices, medications, and training materials specific to medicine and pharmacy.
A medical translator should have a medical background, whether as a physician, pharmacist, or someone well-versed in the medical field.

Political Translation

This is an important branch in the field of translation, it pertains to political affairs of the state, especially those related to foreign and international matters.
It includes translating political documents, international agreements, political conferences, and speeches by leaders and heads of state in international forums, so a political translator must exercise great care, as any error in political translation can lead to various problems.

Religious and Islamic Translation

Religious and Islamic Translation - ترجمة دينية اسلامية -

With the increasing number of Muslims worldwide, who speak different languages and belong to diverse nationalities, the need for translating religious and jurisprudential books has become essential.
This translation assists Muslims in understanding their religion correctly and avoiding any distortion or misrepresentation, religious translation contributes to presenting an accurate image of Islam and addressing misconceptions propagated by those who harbor animosity toward the faith, it aids in translating data from international Islamic organizations to respond to events related to Islam on a global scale.
This type of translation requires utmost precision in translating each word and thorough review by relevant authorities, a small change in wording within any religious book can alter the entire sentence’s meaning, potentially leading to a misunderstanding of the faith or misrepresentation of its noble image.

Scientific Translation

This type focuses on translating scientific texts across diverse fields, including medicine, chemistry, physics, psychology, space science, astronomy, and biology.
A scientific translator must specialize in the field they are translating, however when the target audience is not specialized in the field, the translator must strike a balance between accuracy in conveying information and simplifying the sciences to enhance understanding.

Specialized Translation

This type encompasses all forms of translation related to specific fields, such as legal translation and medical translation.
It requires high precision in conveying information and does not tolerate manipulation of wording.
Despite the required accuracy, specialized translation is not literal; the translator must consider the culture, thought process, and rules of the target language.
An experienced translator with knowledge of specialized terminology in the relevant field is essential.

Technical Translation

It includes translating technical and engineering documents for companies, such as engineering specifications, user manuals, and guides.
Technical translators deal with a diverse range of fields, including information technology and mechanics, they must handle intricate details and illustrative images, formatting them appropriately for the target language.

Types of Translation Based on Execution Method

Execution Method - اختيار - محتار - يخطط

Translation can be categorized according to the approach used by the translator, we can divide translation into the following types:

Communicative Translation

The goal of communicative translation is to achieve the same impact as the original text accurately when translated into the target language, readers receive a fully understandable and acceptable message, leading them to the same objective.
This type of translation takes into account the general context of the text, culture, grammar, word connotations, and more, consequently many translators prefer working with this type when translating texts containing proverbs, idiomatic expressions, or culturally specific phrases.

Free or Communicative Translation

Focuses on conveying the core idea and content of the text’s impact without adhering strictly to a literal translation from the original.
The entire text is rephrased, which may sometimes result in the translated text being longer than the original.

Idiomatic Translation

Aims to find a translation that effectively conveys the general message of the original text by using common phrases and terms in the target language.
It’s executed in a way that makes the target audience feel as though the text was originally written in their language, rather than just a translation.

Literal Translation

Means that translators translate words individually according to their literal meanings, without considering context or linguistic and cultural differences between the two languages.
While this type of translation may not always yield satisfactory results in terms of quality, it can be effective in certain scientific documents, such as medical reports.

Semantic Translation

Accurately transfer the syntactic structure, connotations, and meanings from the source language to the target language.
It distinguishes itself by faithfully reproducing the original text in another language while closely considering context and culture.
It places greater importance on the aesthetic value of the original text and allows the translator more flexibility for creativity.

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